Nickel Alloys

Nickel alloys consist of many different alloys which are utilized for their special qualities such as outstanding corrosion and high temperature which allow them to perform in extreme conditions. 

The recent alloys in these category also have a wide range of ancillary elements are combined to provide unique properties – some of these can be quite complicated and require very close control over composition and heat treatment.

ALLOY 276 / C276

Alloy 276 is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium super alloy with an expansion of tungsten designed to have excellent corrosion resistance in an extensive variety of serious situations. The high nickel alloy and molybdenum substance make the nickel steel alloy particularly resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion in reducing situations while chromium passes on resistance to oxidizing media. The low carbon content minimizes carbide precipitation during welding to keep up corrosion resistance in as-welded structures.

These nickel alloys are resistant to the formation of grain limit accelerates in the weld heat-influenced area, along with thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in an as welded condition. Although the fact that there are a few varieties of the Hastelloy nickel alloy, Hastelloy C-276 is by far the most generally utilized. Alloy C-276 is mostly utilized as a part of the most serious situations, for example, chemical processing, pollution control, pulp and paper production; industrial and municipal waste treatment and recovery of sour natural gas.

Chemical Composition

Alloy 32760CrNiMoWCuMnNSiPSFe
304 (min-max)14.5 to 16.5Remainder15.0 - 17.00.50 - 1.003.0 - 4.50 - 1.000.20 - 0.300.10 - 0.800 - 0.0250 - 0.0054.0 - 7.0

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof Stress550 N/mm279.8 ksi
Tensile Strength750 N/mm2108.8 ksi
Elongation, 5.65√S025%
Reduction of area45%
Hardness (Brinell)270 max
Impact Strength (Room Temp)80J59 lb.ft
Impact Strength (-46oC)60J av (45J min)44 lb.ft av (33 lb.ft min)

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)7810
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)33
Young’s Modulus (kN/mm2)199
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (µΩ.m)0.8
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-300°C (m/m/oC)11.1 x 10-6
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/kg.K)475
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/m.K)14.2
Fracture Toughness, kQ (MPa/m2)98

Industries / End Use: Stack liners, ducts, dampers, scrubbers, stack gas reheaters, heat exchangers, reaction vessels, evaporators, transfer piping and many other highly corrosive applications.

ALLOY 20

Alloy 20 is nickel-iron-chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum and copper. Typically, nickel makes up approximately 30% of its composition, with iron being found in equal if not greater amounts. This provides corrosion resistance, and specifically resistance from chloride stress cracking. Alloy 20 is practically immune to chlorine and was designed to be used in sulfuric environments. It is commonly applied in acidic and/or corrosive environments, such as those that contain phosphoric and nitric acid. Alloy 20 has proven to be excellent under corrosive conditions and various forms of media. As a result, it is commonly found in processing applications—such as food or chemicals—along with pharmaceutical storage and processing.

Alloy 20 is pliable under both hot and cold working practices, however it does have some limitations in regards to temperature. Hot-working practices should stay between 2100—2250°F. Temperature control is essential in terms of work-hardening, forging and welding the metal due to potential risks to its stability. Overall, Alloy 20 is an excellent alternative to more expensive metals with similar applications.

Chemical Composition

NiCrCuMoMnNb+TaSiCpS
32.00 to 38.0019.00 to 21.003.00 to 4.002.00 to 3.002.00 max(8 x C) to 1.001.00 max0.07 max0.045 max0.035 max

Mechanical Properties​

PropertiesTensile strength (annealed)Yield strength (annealed)Elongation at break (annealed)
Metric620 MPav300 MPa41%
Imperial89900 psi43500 psi41%

Physical Properties​

PropertiesMetricImperial
Density8.05 g/cm30.291 lb/in3

Industries / End Use: Storage tanks, mixing tanks, agitators, pump and valve parts, food processing equipment, fasteners and fittings

ALLOY 400 / MONEL 400

It is a nickel-copper alloy (around 67% Ni – 23% Cu) that is resistant to sea water and steam at high temperatures and in addition to salt and caustic solutions. Monel 400 is solid solution alloys that must be harden by cold working. These nickel alloys displays qualities like good corrosion resistance, great weldability and high strength. A low corrosion rate in quickly streaming brackish or seawater joined with incredible imperviousness to stretch corrosion breaking in many freshwaters and its resistance to an assortment of corrosive conditions prompted its wide use in other non-oxidizing chloride solutions and marine applications. This nickel alloy is especially resistant to hydrofluoric acids and hydrochloric when they are de-aerated. As would be normal from its high copper content, alloy 400 is quickly assaulted by nitric acid and ammonia systems.

Monel 400 has incredible mechanical properties at below zero temperatures, can be utilized as a part of temperatures up to 1000° F and its melting point is 2370-2460° F. In any case, alloy 400 is low in strength in the annealed condition along these lines; an assortment of tempers might be utilized to increase the strength.

Chemical Composition

GradeNiCuCMnSiSFe
Alloy 400 (min-max)63.00 - 028.00 - 34.000 - 0.300 - 2.000 - 0.500 - 0.0240 - 2.50

Mechanical Properties

Hot Worked & AnnealedCold Worked & Stress Relieved
0.2% PROOF STRESS​172 N/mm2483 - 690 N/mm2
1.0% Proof Stress195 N/mm2621 - 862 N/mm2
Tensile Strength483 N/mm2621 - 862 N/mm2
Elongation, 5.65√S0 and 4D35%20%
Reduction of area60%60%
Hardness110 – 132 HBN35 HRC max
Impact Strength (Room Temp)160J av (150J min)160J av (150J min)

Physical Properties

GradeAlloy 400
Density (kg/m3)8830
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)Could show magnetism as Curie temperature is close to room temperature
Young’s Modulus (kN/mm2)179
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (µΩ-m)0.51
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (m/m/degC)14.1 x 10-6
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/kg.K)419
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/m.K)21.8
Curie Temperature (°C)21 - 49

Industry / End Use: Pumps and valves, propeller shafts, marine fixtures and fasteners, electronic components, springs, chemical processing equipment, fresh and salt water tanks, process vessels and piping, boiler feedwater heaters and other heat exchangers.

ALLOY 500 / MONEL 500

Monel K-500 is a precipitation-hardeningenables nickel-copper alloy that consolidates the magnificent corrosion resistance characteristic for Monel 400 with the additional point of preference of more noteworthy strength and hardness. These intensified properties, strength and hardness, are acquired by adding aluminium and titanium to the nickel-copper base and by thermal processing used to impact precipitation, usually called age hardening or aging. At the point when in the age- hardening condition, Monel K-500 has a more prominent propensity toward stress corrosion cracking splitting in a fewer situations than Monel 400. Alloy K-500 has around three times the yield strength and twofold the tensile when contrasted with alloy 400.

Chemical Composition

Alloy K500NiTiCuCMnSiSFeAl
min-max63.00 - 00.35 - 0.8527.00 - 33.000 - 0.250 - 1.500 - 0.500 - 0.0100 - 2.002.30 - 3.15

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof StressTensile StrengthElongation, 5.65√S0Reduction of areaHardness (Brinell)Impact Strength (Room Temp)Impact Strength (-46°C) : LongitudinalImpact Strength (-46oC) : Transverse
450 N/mm2655 N/mm225%45%<27080J (av)100-260mm 45J (35J min)50-260mm 45J (35J min)

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)Magnetic Permeability (20°C)Young’s Modulus (kN/mm2)Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (µΩ-m)Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (m/m/degC)\Specific Heat, 20°C (J/kg.K)Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/m.K)Curie Temperature (°C)
8430<1.005 (1.002 typical)1790.6213.4 x 10-641817.5-90

Industry / End Use: Fasteners, springs, chains, pump and valve components, drill collars, doctor blades, scrapers, mixing shafts, impellers, sensors, electrical components and other highly corrosive applications where strength and hardness are important.

ALLOY 625/ INCONEL 625

Inconel 625 is corrosion and oxidation resistant nickel alloy. This Inconel 625 alloy is utilized both for its high strength and exceptional fluid corrosion resistance.

 Its extraordinary strength and sturdiness is because of the expansion of niobium, which acts with the molybdenum to stiffen the alloy’s matrix. Alloy 625 has superb strength and stress corrosion cracking resistance to chloride ions. This nickel alloy has very good weldability and is as often as possible used to weld AL-6XN. This alloy resists an extensive variety of severely corrosive environments and is especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. Some of the applications Inconel 625 are utilized as a part of chemical processing, aerospace as well as marine engineering, pollution-control equipment and nuclear reactors.

Chemical Composition

Alloy 625CrNiMoCoNb (+Ta)TiCMnSiPSFeAl
Min - max20.00 - 23.0058.00 - 08.00 - 10.000 - 1.003.15 - 4.150 - 0.400 - 0.100 - 0.500 - 0.500 - 0.0150 - 0.0150 - 5.000 - 0.40

Mechanical Properties

Bars up to and including 4” diameterBars above 4” diameter
0.2% Proof Stress415 N/mm2345 N/mm2
Tensile Strength830 N/mm2760 N/mm2
Elongation, 5.65√S0 and 4D30%25%
Reduction of area35%35%

Physical Properties

Density (Kg.m-1)84.4
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)<1.001
Curie Temperature (°C)-196
Young’s Modulus (N/mm2)207.5
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/(g.K))410
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (Ω-m)0.0129
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/(m.K))9.9
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (/K)12.8 x 10-6

Industry / End Use: Heat exchangers, bellows, expansion joints, exhaust systems, fasteners, quick connect fittings and many other applications requiring strength and resistance against aggressive corrosive environments

ALLOY 718 / INCONEL 718

Inconel 718 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy intended to resist an extensive variety of serious corrosive situations, pitting and crevice corrosion. This nickel steel alloy additionally shows incredibly high return, tensile, and creep-break properties at high temperatures. These nickel alloys is utilized from cryogenic temperatures up to long term service at 1200° F. One of the recognizing elements of Inconel 718’s composition is the expansion of niobium to allow age hardening which permits annealing and welding without unconstrained hardening during heating and cooling. The expansion of niobium acts with the molybdenum to stiffen the alloy matrix and give high strength without a reinforcing heat treatment.

Other well known nickel-chromium alloys are age hardened through the expansion of aluminium and titanium. This nickel steel alloy is promptly fabricated and might be welded in either the annealed or precipitation (age) hardened condition.

Chemical Composition

GradeCrNiMoCoNb (+Ta)TiCuCMnSiPSFe
Alloy 718 (min-max)17.00 - 21.0050.00 - 55.002.80 - 3.300 - 1.004.70 - 5.500.65 - 1.150 - 0.300 - 0.080 - 0.350 - 0.350 - 0.0150 - 0.015Bal

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof Stress, min0.2% Proof Stress, minTensile strength, minElongation, 5.65√S0 and 4DReduction of AreaHardness (Rockwell C)Impact Strength (-60oC) LongitudinalImpact Strength (-60oC) Transverse
Bars up to and including 10” (254) diameter827 N/mm21000 N/mm21034 N/mm220%35%32-40HRC68J av (61J min)47J av (41J min)
Bars greater than 10” (254mm) diameter827 N/mm21000 N/mm21034 N/mm220%25%32-40HRC​41J av (37J min)
Bars up to and including 10” (254) diameter965 N/mm21034 N/mm21138 N/mm220%35%34-40 HRC68J av (61J min)47J av (41J min)
Bars greater than 10” (254mm) diameter965 N/mm21034 N/mm21103 N/mm220%25%34-40HRC100-260mm 45J (35J min)41J av (37J min)

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)Magnetic Permeability (20°C)Young’s Modulus (kN/mm2)Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (µΩ-m)Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (m/m/°C)Specific Heat, 20°C (J/kg.K)Thermal Conductivity, 20°C (W/m.K)Curie Temperature (°C)
8230<1.0022001.2512.1 x 10-643511.1-112 (aged)

Industry / End Use: Liquid fueled rockets, rings, casings and various formed sheet metal parts for aircraft and land-based gas turbine engines, and cryogenic tankage. It is also used for fasteners and instrumentation parts.

ALLOY 825 / INCOLOY 825

Incoloy 825 is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy with increments of molybdenum and copper. This nickel steel alloy chemical composition is intended to give exceptional resistance to numerous corrosive situations. It is like alloy 800 however, has enhanced resistance to aqueous corrosion. It has magnificent resistance to both decreasing and oxidizing acids, to stretch-corrosion splitting and to restricted assault, for example, pitting and crevice corrosion. Alloy 825 is particularly resistant to sulfuric and phosphoric acids.The Nickel steel alloy is utilized for acid production, chemical processing, oil and gas well piping, pollution-control equipment, nuclear fuel reprocessing and pickling equipment.

Chemical Composition

GradeCrNiMoTiCuCMnSiSFeAl
min - max19.50 - 23.5038.00 - 46.002.50 - 3.500.60 - 1.201.50 - 3.000 - 0.050 - 1.000 - 0.500 - 0.0322.00 - 00 - 0.20

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof Stress​241 N/mm2​35 ksi​
Tensile Strength590 N/mm286 ksi
Elongation, 5.65√S0 and 4D30%
Reduction of Area40%
Hardness (Brinell)327 max.

Physical Properties

Density (Kg.m-1)81.4
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)1.005
Curie Temperature (°C)-196
Young’s Modulus (N/mm2)196
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/(g.K))440
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (Ω-m)0.00113
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/(m.K))10.8
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (/K)

Industry / End Use: Valve components, thermowells and sensors, fasteners and also some downhole tooling which make use of its non-magnetic properties

ALLOY 22

Alloy C-22 is an adaptable austenitic nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy with upgraded resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The high chromium content gives excellent resistance to oxidizing media while the molybdenum and tungsten content give very good resistance to decreasing media. 

This nickel steel alloy likewise has magnificent resistance to oxidizing aqueous media, consisting wet chlorine and mixtures containing nitric acid or oxidizing acids with chlorine ions. Different corrosives Hastelloy C-22 has resistance to are oxidizing acid chlorides, wet chlorine, formic and acetic acids, ferric and cupric chlorides, sea water, brine and many mixed or contaminated chemical solutions, both natural and inorganic. These nickel alloys offer ideal resistance to situations where reducing and oxidizing conditions are experienced in process streams. This is valuable in multi-reason plants where such “upset” conditions happen oftentimes. These nickel alloys resist the development of grain-limit accelerates in the weld heat-influenced area, subsequently making it suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition. Alloy C-22 ought not to be utilized as a part of service temperatures above 1250° F because of the formation of adverse stages which form over this temperature.

Chemical Composition

GradeCrNiMoTiCuCMnSiSFeAl
min - max19.50 - 23.5038.00 - 46.002.50 - 3.500.60 - 1.201.50 - 3.000 - 0.050 - 1.000 - 0.500 - 0.0322.00 - 00 - 0.20

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof Stress​241 N/mm2​35 ksi​
Tensile Strength590 N/mm286 ksi
Elongation, 5.65√S0 and 4D30%
Reduction of Area40%
Hardness (Brinell)327 max.

Physical Properties

Density (Kg.m-1)81.4
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)1.005
Curie Temperature (°C)-196
Young’s Modulus (N/mm2)196
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/(g.K))440
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (Ω-m)0.00113
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/(m.K))10.8
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (/K)

Industry / End Use: Waste incinerators, equipment for flue-gas desulfurization scrubbers, nuclear fuel reprocessing/spent fuel containers, pickling systems, heat exchanger components, equipment for chemical manufacturing, flow meters and many other highly corrosive applications.

ALLOY 600

Inconel 600 is a nickel-chromium alloy utilized for applications that require corrosion as well as high temperature resistance. These nickel alloys was intended for service temperatures from cryogenic to high temperatures in the scope of 2000° F.

 It is non-magnetic, has phenomenal mechanical properties, and presents the alluring blend of high strength and very good weldability under an extensive scope of temperatures. The high nickel content in Inconel 600 enables it to hold extensive resistance under decreasing conditions, makes it resistant to corrosion by various organic and inorganic mixes and gives it magnificentresistance to chloride- ion stress-corrosion breaking furthermore gives magnificent resistance to alkaline solutions. Average utilizations of this nickel alloy incorporate the chemical, pulp and paper, aerospace, nuclear engineering and heat treating industries.

Chemical Composition

GradeCrNiMoTiCuCMnSiSFeAl
min - max19.50 - 23.5038.00 - 46.002.50 - 3.500.60 - 1.201.50 - 3.000 - 0.050 - 1.000 - 0.500 - 0.0322.00 - 00 - 0.20

Mechanical Properties

0.2% Proof Stress​241 N/mm2​35 ksi​
Tensile Strength590 N/mm286 ksi
Elongation, 5.65√S0 and 4D30%
Reduction of Area40%
Hardness (Brinell)327 max.

Physical Properties

Density (Kg.m-1)81.4
Magnetic Permeability (20°C)1.005
Curie Temperature (°C)-196
Young’s Modulus (N/mm2)196
Specific Heat, 20°C (J/(g.K))440
Specific Electrical Resistance, 20°C (Ω-m)0.00113
Thermal conductivity, 20°C (W/(m.K))10.8
Mean coefficient of thermal expansion, 20-100°C (/K)

Industry / End Use: Chemical process industry applications include heaters, condensers and trays. Heat-treat industry applications include muffles, retorts, baskets and other furnace fixtures. Aerospace industry applications include exhaust liners, turbine seals and air-frame components. 

ZERON 100, SUPER DUPLEX​

Zeron 100 is a super duplex stainless steel. It is a highly alloyed stainless steel intended for use in forceful situations. High strength, toughness, magnificent corrosion resistance and its resistance to corrosion in a wide range of organic and inorganic acids is only a couple of attributes that make this duplex stainless steel attractive to a variety of industries. In conclusion, it is highly resistant to strong alkalis and resists corrosion in various non-oxidizing acids. Utilization of this super duplex stainless steel is not recommended when it includes extended exposure to temperatures greater than 572° F. This exposure causes a considerable reduction in toughness. Notice the chemical composition of duplex 2507 and Zeron 100 are same; however, Zeron 100 contains marginally more copper and tungsten. The copper substance (min. 0.5, max 1.0) grants magnificent resistance to corrosion in many non-oxidizing and mineral acids like hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.

Chemical Composition

GradeCNSiPSCrMnFeNiCuMoW
0.05 Max0.2 - 0.31.0 Max0.03 Max0.01 Max24.0 - 26.01.0 MaxBalance6.0 - 8.00.50 - 1.03.0 - 4.00.5 - 1.0

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength (ksi)0.2% Yield Strength (ksi)Elongation% in 2 inches
109 - 13080 25

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)Specific HeatMelting RangeModulus of ElasticityElectrical ResistivityCoefficient of ExpansionThermal Conductivity
7.84 g/cm³0.115 Kcal/kg.C1377 - 1455 °C199 KN/mm²85.1 µΩ.cm11.1 µm/m °C14.2 W/m -°K
Room20°-22°Room20 - 100°20°

Industry / End Use: Oil and gas industry applications, Pollution control, Pulp and paper, Power generation, Flue-gas desulfurization

 

SUPER DUPLEX 2507

Duplex 2507 is a super duplex stainless steel designed for applications which demand exceptional strength and corrosion resistance. Alloy 2507 has 25% chromium, 4% molybdenum, and 7% nickel. This high molybdenum, chromium and nitrogen content results in excellent resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion attack and the duplex structure provides 2507 with exceptional resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking.

Usage of Duplex 2507 should be limited to applications below 600° F (316° C). Extended elevated temperature exposure can reduce both the toughness and corrosion resistance of alloy 2507.

Chemical Composition

GradeCNSiPSCrMnFeNiCuMo
Content0.03 Max0.24 - 0.320.8 Max0.035 Max0.02 Max24.0 - 26.01.2 MaxBalance6.0 - 8.00.5 Max3.0 - 5.0

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength (ksi)116
0.2% Yield Strength (ksi)80
Elongation% in 2 inches15

Physical Properties

Density7.75 g/cm³Room
Specific Heat0.12 Kcal/kg.C20°
Melting Range1410 - 1460 °C-
Modulus of Elasticity200 KN/mm²20°
Electrical Resistivity80 µΩ.cm20°
Coefficient of Expansion13.0 µm/m °C20 - 100°
Thermal conductivity17.0 W/m -°K20°

Industry / End Use: Desalination Equipment, Chemical process pressure vessels, piping and heat exchangers, Marine Applications, Pulp & Paper Mill Equipment.

Alloy 904L

UNS N08904 also known as 904L falls in the austenitic stainless steel group. It has high molybdenum and extremely low carbon content. Copper content in the alloy greatly improves resistance to strong reducing acids, especially (H2SO4) sulphuric acid. 904L has better resistance. Ti chloride attack against both stress corrosion cracking and crevice / pitting corrosion.

With excellent weldability and formability 904L also maintain non-magnetic state in all conditions. 904L provides excellent toughness , even down to cryogenic temperatures with its austenitic structure.

Chemical Composition

GradeCSiPSCrMnFeNiCuMo
0.02 max1.0 max0.045 max0.035 max19.0 - 23.02.0 maxBalance23.0 - 28.01.0 - 2.04.0 - 5.0

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength (ksi)0.2% Yield Strength (ksi)Elongation% in 2 inches
713135

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)Specific HeatMelting RangeModulus of ElasticityElectrical ResistivityCoefficient of ExpansionThermal Conductivity
8.0 g/cm³0.11 Kcal/kg.C1300 - 1390 °C195 KN/mm²94 µΩ.cm15.5 µm/m °C12.0 W/m °K
Room22°-20°Room20 - 100°20°

Industry / End Use: Seawater cooling equipment, Chemical processing for sulphuric, phosphoric and acetic acids, Gas washing, Condenser tubes, Control and instrumentation, Heat exchangers

HASTELLOY C-22

Hastelloy C22 provides resistance to general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, intergranular attack, and stress corrosion cracking. Hastelloy C22 contains chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and iron which makes the alloy resistant to corrosion in stagnant or flowing seawater. The alloy is formed by gas tungsten-arc, gas metal-arc, and shielded metal-arc processes. Hastelloy C22® seamless pipe is available up to 2″ NB. Larger sizes are available in welded construction (100% X-ray) and can also be fabricated to order. Hastelloy C22 tubing is available up 2″ OD in welded & 1/2″ OD isn seamless construction. Hastelloy C22 redrawn tubes and tubing with tight tolerances can be supplied in almost any size no matter how small the size or quantity.

Chemical Composition

GradeCSiPSVCrMnFeCoNiMoW
0.015 max0.08 max0.02 max0.02 max0.35 max20.0 - 22.50.50 max2.0 - 6.02.5 maxRemainder12.5 - 14.52.5 - 3.5

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength (ksi)0.2% Yield Strength (ksi)Elongation% in 2 inches
1004545

Physical Properties

Density (Kg/m3)Specific HeatMelting RangeModulus of ElasticityElectrical ResistivityCoefficient of ExpansionThermal Conductivity
8.69 g/cm³0.093 Kcal/kg.C1357 - 1399 °C205.5 KN/mm²113.7 µΩ.cm12.4 µm/m °C10.1 W/m -°K
24°C52°--24°24-93°48°

Industry / End Use: Reactors, heat exchangers, and columns